For me working step 6 (and step 7 - it's hard for me to do one without the other) is about action and practice, practice, practice. The first thing I did was make a list of all my character defects that I had discovered from my 4th step and those that I am just aware of. I did some writing on each of them - identifying what they did/do for me, what they did/do to me, and what they did/do to other people. But the most effective work for me was to create a list of the corresponding opposite of each defect (dishonesty -- honesty; resentful -- forgiving; impatient -- patient; etc.), and then each morning I would review the list to remind myself of what I wanted to practice, I would try to look for ways to actually practice those opposites throughout the day, and at night before bed, I would review the list and identify those character defects that I knew I had practiced that day. Just the process of regularly reviewing my list (of defects and what the opposites were) helped create an awareness of them in me, looking for ways to specifically practice the opposites of my defects helped me learn how to be different, and reviewing it at night added to the awareness, as well as helped me remember in the future to practice the opposite.
I also found it helpful to focus on a particular deffect/opposite for a day, and throughout that entire day, I would look for ways to practice the opposite and/or avoid the defect. This was especially helpful for some of the bigger defects of character that were more pervasive in me (popping up in lots of things I do).
And last but definitely not least, my sponsor has me work the steps on particular defects of character if they are causing me lots of problems, but obviously you don't spend forever doing all of the steps on every defect of character such that you can't get through the steps your first time through. Focusing on one defect of character and working all the steps on it is is more of a "intensive stepwork" type thing. But the logic behind it is helpful even your first time through the steps - recognizing that you are powerless over your character defects, that your higher power can restore you to sanity, turning your character defects over to your higher power for removal, etc.
Hopefully that makes some sense and isn't just a big confusing mess ...